Kala Sharir: Physiological and applied perspectives – Dr. Prasad Pandkar


Commentary for a power-point presentation entitled ‘Kala sharir: Physiological and clinical perspectives’

Slide no. Commentary
1 This presentation is from a seminar on Kala. There were 3 resource persons to speak about the concept and application of Kala in ayurvedic sharir. Two Speakers were respectively from RachanaSharir& Samhita. This presentation is by a Kriya Sharir person. The presentation addresses

Ø  Issues in understanding of sharir bhava

Ø  Concept ofkala sharir in purview of Physiology.

Ø  Clinical Applicationof kala sharir


2 The presentation starts with a virtual clinical scenario. Today’s many joint disorders are needed to be diagnosed properly. There is not merely Pitta-anubandha or raktadushti in samprapti, but distinctly Vishasevana is needed to be considered as hetu. Chewing tobacco is commonly found hetu. Visha tend to vitiates kala.


3 This is again a virtual case of sheetapitta not responding to routine managements, unless vishaghna kalpas are used.


4 This virtual scene implies importance of correction of metabolism in pakwashaya while treating


5 Many scholars interpret Cancer as Arbud but upakrama and aushadhi from arbud adhikarana help in cancer a little. Instead use of rasayanaprayoga, jivaniya and dhatu prasadaka aushadhi and upakrama arisen beneficial.


6 The literature about kala can be seen only in Sharir and VishaAdhikarana. This implies importance of visha as hetu for vitiation of kala. It is also evident that kala vitiation by visha is an important component of sampraptis seen today. Also the interrelationships between kala quoted by Dalhana (Pittadhara- Majjadhara and Asthidhara- Purishadhara kala) are of great importance in clinical practice, particularly for prognosis, complications and management.


7 & 8 The phenomenon of Life is tried to be understood and defined by different scholars of different disciplines. In a ‘Science’ publication, Daniel Koshland has enlisted seven processes as seven essential Programs of life.

Ø  Improvisation

Ø  Compartmentalization (In a living structure tisues are needed to be separated by a physical barrier thus leading to compartmentalization)

Ø  Energy

Ø  Regeneration

Ø  Adaptability

Ø  Seclusion (“Seclusion” is the separation of chemical pathways and the specificity of the effect of molecules, so that processes can function separately within the living system.)


Kala is the unique ayurvedic structure/ phenomenon dedicated for function of compartmentalization as well Seclusion.


9 & 10&


This slide explains how there cannot be one to one comparison of terminology. One ayurvedic sharir term can be comparable to more than one modern terms and vice versa. Also some concepts (like shukradhara kala) are exclusively unique ayurvedic concepts.


12 One must remember that even a single organ (in a modern perspective) is simultaneously a place for different ayurvedic sharir bhava.


13 Self-Explanatory


14 Self-Explanatory


15 This is an important reference from Indu Commentary. Genesis of kala is mentioned from the kleda (residing ‘between dhatu’ or ‘dhatu and ashya’) after process by ‘dhatu-ushma’.This verse has not only an embryological significance but also it is significant in context with Nidan & Chikitsa.


16 Charaka samhita do not mention kala. One can say that the phenomenon of srotas can be inclusive of same. However it remains debatable.


17& 18&


The important function of ‘Dharana’ is structural as well to some extent a functional one.

Differentiating dhatus from one another and dhatu and ashaya from each other is all about the pair of Sandra and Drava guna. Sandra stands for apt viscosity of the respective. It is vikrut drava guna that affects the sandrta(composition) of dhatu. Drava is guna of Pitta in normal state. Whereas that of Pitta and kapha in abnormal state.

Abhishyandana is an important hetu and phenomenon in similar regards.


20 Pittaghna chikitsa is advocated for Visha Chikitsa. Interestingly kala are discussed in sharira sthana and Visha vega adhikarana. Prasadana of Dhatu is achieved by removal of malinya.
21 With reference from Indu commentary as well from metaanalysis of all references of kala, it can be concluded that better dhatwagni will lead to apt permeability across different kala, thus maintaining the composition of dhatu in equilibrium.


22 Self-Explanatory


23 Self-Explanatory


24 Self-Explanatory


25 Self-Explanatory


26 Vimargagamana’(Internal abnormal depositions of body tissues/ liquids/ elements) is an important phenomenon of sroto dushti to understand many of new (!) diseases. This abnormal transport is again result of impaired kala only.


27 Self-Explanatory


28 Self-Explanatory


29 Phenomenon of shaithilya is an important application in context with mamsadhara kala. Shaithilya at various body tissues leads to variety of symptoms and pathologies. In ayurvedic classics one can find answers to Pitta pradhana Shaithilya in Pandu adhikarana whereas that of Kapha pradhana shaithilya in Prameha adhikarana.


30 Self-Explanatory


31 & 32&


Endothelium and vasodilation are important phenomenon is relevant in context with Raktadhara kala. Because the very concept of rakta is far inclusive. It not only includes blood & reticuloendothelium system but ‘Prana’ the ayurvedic element that stands for vitality, immunology and more.


34 &





36 Vapavahana is an important organ. In Jan 2017 mesentery was identified as an organ. Ayurveda has well identified the importance of same organ far earlier. The slide shows relationship between agni and sneha. It is sneha from vapavahana (mesenteric fat) which empowers the jatharagni.

Sneha- Agni is one of most important physiological relationships.

37 &

38 &


40 &


In context with Shleshma-dhara kala this slide enlists ayurvedic Sharir bhava included in Joint. Management of Extracapsular and intracapsular joint pain has got different sharir bhava included in it on which upakrama & aushadhi becomes different.
42 &


Maladhara kala is a term inclusive for inclusive of metabolic wastes.
44 Mala sanchiti pradhan roga in ayurveda : kushtha and udara


Interrelationship of Purishadhara kala and asthidhara kala is quoted by Dalhana. This mutual relationship is important in practise. Purishadhara kala is the only place where Basti is administered. Also correction of 3rd awasthapaka / Pachana is an important upakrama while treating asthi and vayu.
47 -52 Interrelationship of Majjadhara kala and Pittadhara kala is quoted by Dalhana. Brain is highly vascular organ. It is Teja mahabhoota only which is important linkage between these two kala. In pakshaghata chikitsa interestingly it is upakrama of virechana (removing excess pitta and purifing rakta) that is recommended and not basti.

Presently we are witnessing many more unfolding on insights for ‘Gut microbiota and CNS’.

53 Shukradhara kala represents all entities responsible for reproduction. First and last i.e. Rasa dhatu and Shukra dhatu are important in this context. Rasayana and Vajikarana the two out of ashtanga ayurveda are dealing with this.
54 &


Self – Explanatory
56 &


The publication from Nature (2018) (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23062-6) refers to newly explored functions of structure Interstitium, after which some scholars have started demanding status of organ (to interstitium)

Interstitium has a great amount of similitude with kala.

58 This slide explains how finding modern correlates for ayurvedic sharir bhava is an endless job. In C Dwarkanathji’s book he has explained similitudes between kala and cell membrane as perhaps cell membrane was the relevant research topic during his times. Ghanekarji has correlated kala with fibrous, serous and mucous membranes respectively in connection with 3 examples quoted for kala viz. snayu, jarayu and shleshma. A vaidya from 2018-19 will perhaps like to correlate kala with interstitium as a bigger physiological role of interstitium is on its way of unfolding. Thus its endless job as modern research gives us more updates and thus insights.
59 It gives take home message of considering kala as interfaces and not only some anatomical structural barriers.
60 Summary



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