Physio-clinical significance of Dhatumala – Lecture part – 2
Dr. Vandana Verma , Assistant Professor, Department of Kriya Sharira
Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi
Dhatumala (waste products of tissue metabolism)
During the tissue metabolism (dhatu paka) the seven tissues i.e. rasa rakta, mansa, meda, asthi, majja, sukra, are acted upon by their respective dhatvagni , get divide into two parts sarabhag (nutrient part) and the kitta bhaag (waste part). Thus waste is produced at the level of metabolism of rasa to majja dhatu, whereas at the level of sukra dhatupaka no waste is produced.
Malarupi Pitta- Ranjaka Pitta
All the scholars of Ayurveda have considered Pitta as mala of Rakta dhatu but Acharya Sharangdhar has considered only to the Ranjak pitta as Mala of Rakta Dhatu which seems more appropriate in relation to metabolism of Rakta dhatu. Chakrapani has considered to both Rasa and Rakta as circulatory dhatu and called as Rudhir (blood) while describing the function of Vyana vata. Here Rakta Dhatu could be understood as blood cells and Rasa dhatu as plasma component of blood. The site of Ranjak pitta is the yakrit and pliha, its function is to provide colour to the Rasa dhatu.
The synthesis and breakdown of RBCs is related to Liver and spleen hence both these organs has been considered as Moola of Raktavaha Srotas. Bilirubin is the breakdown product of RBC which could be considered as Mala of Pitta. Bilirubin provides colour to urine and feces and in certain amount it is present in blood.
Normal concentration of bilirubin shows the functional state of Raktavaha srotomula i.e. Liver and spleen.
Thus, by observing the normal levels of malarupi ranjaka pitta (bilirubin) we can infer about the normal functional state of Rakta dhatu. State of Hyperbilirubinemia i.e. excess formation of Malarupi Pitta that causes discoloration in different parts of the body is similar to the state of Pittavriddhi lakshan in which yellowish discoloration of feces, urine, skin, excessive thirst, burning sensation in the body, insomnia etc. are found. Similarly the characteristics of Rakta vitiated vikara are blue mole, jaundice, blemishes over the skin.
तथा च केचिदाऽऽहुः द्विधा वातादयः प्राकृता वैकृताश्च 1|६| तत्र प्रकृताः सप्तविधायाः प्रकृतेर्हेतुभूताः शरीरैकजन्मानः २|६|
वैकृतास्तुगर्भादिभिनिस्सृतस्याहाररसस्य मलाः सम्भवन्ति| प्राकृतेष्ववरोहन्ति ||७||
तेकालादिवशेनस्वप्रमाणवृद्धिक्षययोगाद् देहमनुगृह्णन्ति दूषयन्ति च||८|| (A.Hri.8/6, 7,8)
शोणितवहानां स्रोतसां यकृन्मूलं प्लीहा च| (C.Vi.5/8)
यत्तु यकृत्प्लीह्नोः पित्तं तस्मिन् रञ्जकोऽग्निरिति सञ्ज्ञा, स रसस्य रागकृदुक्तः I(S.Su.21/10)
पीतविण्मूत्रनेत्रत्वक्क्षुत्तृड्दाहाल्पनिद्रताः| पित्तम्– (A.Hri11/7)
नीलिका कामला व्यङ्गः पिप्प्लवस्तिलकालकाः|| रक्तप्रदोषाज्जायन्ते,… C.Su.28/12
खमल ( Ear wax/secretions in outer openings of the body)
Ear wax or cerumen- It protects the skin of the ear canal against bacteria, fungi, and water. The earwax constitutes shed layers of skin, long-chain fatty acids, alcohols, squalene and cholesterol. As per Chakrapani Khamal also refers to excretions in ear, eye, nose, and oral cavity, genital which protects these orifices.
मांसस्य खमला इति कर्णाक्षिनासास्यप्रजननमलाः| (Chakrapani commentary on C.Ci.15/18)
Fraction of Udaka (body water) which comes out through the skin pores on exposure to the heat is called Sveda. Sweat is produced and carried by Svedavaha Srotas. Moola of Svedavaha Srotas is Lomakoopa and Meda. Its composition is mainly water and is the dwelling site of Pitta. Samana Vata and Vyana vata regulate the formation and secretion of Sveda. Excessive sweating is found in Meda dhatu vitiation and obesity.
The Vyan vata is responsible for the excretion of Sveda, the function of Sveda is to maintain the moisture and softness of the skin.
Sweda is Mala of Meda dhatu, so by observing the quantity of sweat the rate of sweating we can have the idea about the normal functional state of Meda dhatu.
यच्चोष्मणाऽनुबद्धं लोमकूपेभ्यो निष्पतत् स्वेदशब्दमवाप्नोति ( C. Sha. 7/15)
स्वेदः स्तन्यं चाप्यम्’ इति चक्रः ( Chakrapani commentary on S. Su. 15/8)
स्वेदवहानां स्रोतसां मेदो मूलं लोमकूपाश्च (C.Vi.5/8)
स्वेददोषाम्बुवाहीनि स्रोतांसि समधिष्ठितः| अन्तरग्नेश्च पार्श्वस्थः समानोऽग्निबलप्रदः|| (C.Chi.28/8)
कृत्स्नदेहचरो व्यानो रससंवहनोद्यतः || स्वेदासृक्स्रावणश्चापि पञ्चधा चेष्टयत्यपि | (S.Ni.1/17)
नाभिरामाशयः स्वेदो लसीका रुधिरं रसः| दृक् स्पर्शनं च पित्तस्य, नाभिरत्र विशेषतः||(A.Hri.Su.12/2)
क्लेदत्वक्स्नेहरोमधारणैः स्वेद इति I (A. Sam. Su. 19/4)
Kesha, Loma, Shramashru and Nakha
Hairs and Nails are mala of Asthi dhatu, are formed in six month of embryonic life. The number of hair follicles formed at birth remains same all through the life it, s number do not increases with the growth of body. Hairs and Nails are the dhatumala which grow even in case of Dhatukshya due to their inherent property.
The characteristics of Nails and Hair have been described as traits of long life in child. Similarly the characteristics of hairs in body has been described as determining trait of Tvak Sara person
षष्ठे स्नायुसिरारोमबलवर्णनख़त्वचाम् ||(A.Hri. 1/57)
दृष्टिश्च रोमकूपाश्च न वर्धन्ते कदाचन| ध्रुवाण्येतानि मर्त्यानामिति धन्वन्तरेर्मतम्|| (S.Sha.4/60)
शरीरे क्षीयमाणेऽपि वर्धेते द्वाविमौ सदा| स्वभावं प्रकृतिं कृत्वा नखकेशाविति स्थितिः ||(S.Sha.4/61)
एकैकजा मृदवोऽल्पाः स्निग्धाः सुबद्धमूलाः कृष्णाः केशाः प्रशस्यन्ते, I —-स्थिरा वृत्ताः स्निग्धास्ताम्रास्तुङ्गाः कूर्माकाराः करजाः(C.Sha.8/51)
तत्रस्निग्धश्लक्ष्णमृदुप्रसन्नसूक्ष्माल्प गम्भीरसुकुमारलोमा सप्रभेव च त्वक् त्वक्साराणाम्| (C.Vi.8/103)
Hairs as determinant trait in assessment of Prakriti
Vata Prakriti – Hairs Less, dry, brownish colour.
Pitta Prakriti – Hairs Less, soft, golden brown.
Kapha Prakriti – Hairs curly, dense, thick, dark black, soft.
स्फुटितकरचरणोऽल्परूक्षश्मश्रुनखकेशः क्राथी दन्तखादी च भवति (S.Sha.4/64)
पारुष्यात् परुषकेशश्मश्रुरोमनखदशनवदनपाणिपादाः (C.Vi.8/98) स्फुटितधूसरकेशगात्राः| (A.Hri.3/85)
क्षिप्रवलीपलितखालित्यदोषाः, प्रायोमृद्वल्पकपिलश्मश्रुलोमकेशाश्च (C.Vi.8/97)
ताम्रनखनयनतालुजिह्वौष्ठपाणिपादतलो दुर्भगो वलीपलितखालित्यजुष्टो (S.Sha.4/68)
Kesha (Hairs on scalp)- Kesha is Mala of Asthi dhatu
Causes of Hair loss and premature graying –
Above the age of 70 years wrinkling of skin, graying and falling of hairs occur naturally. सप्ततेरूर्ध्वंक्षीयमाणधात्विन्द्रियबलवीर्योत्साहमहन्यहनि वलीपलितखालित्यजुष्टं (S.Su.35/29)
Piita Prakrtiti Traits: – Piita Prakrtiti persons have tendency of premature graying and falling of hairs due to natural dominance of Pitta dosha in their body. क्षिप्रवलीपलितखालित्यदोषाः (C.Vi.8/97), वलीपलितखालित्यजुष्टो (S.Sha. 4/68)
Vitiation of Rasa and Asthi Dhatu-: Deficiency of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Ca, Vitamin B12, Vitamin D, Low HDL, Low thyroid hormones influence the melanogenesis and lead to premature graying and hair loss PEM, and diseases causing chronic protein loss are associated with reversible hypo pigmentation of hairs. वलयः पलितानि च रसप्रदोषजा रोगा (C.Su.28/10), (S.Su.24/9 )
अध्यस्थिदन्तौ दन्तास्थिभेदशूलं विवर्णता | केशलोमनखश्मश्रुदोषाश्चास्थिप्रदोषजाः|| (C.Su.28/16)
Emotional stress – क्रोधशोकश्रमकृतः शरीरोष्मा शिरोगतः | पित्तं च केशान् पचति पलितं तेन जायते || (S. Ni.13/37)
Excess intake of Lavan rasa(salt) – वलिपलितखालित्यमापादयति (C.Su.26/43) ,
Excess intake of Lavan by pregnant women may cause baldness and premature graying of hairs in offspring लवणनित्या शीघ्रवलीपलितं खालित्यरोगिणं वा ( Garbhopghatkar bhav in C.Sha. 8/29)
Nakh (Nail) is Mala of Asthi Dhatu. Nails are twenty in number and Acharya charak has enumerated it under Asthi. In Vata person nails are dry; in Pitta person it is copperish in colour and white shiny in Kapha Prakriti person.
In case of Asthi Dhatu Kshya, there is deficiency of calcium which leads to white patches on the nail. Similarly in various other disorder also we get changes in the nails like clubbing of the fingers in case of liver disorder and COPD, in case of iron deficiency anaemia the condition is called as koilonychia the nail become spoon shaped and brittle also. Thus just by observing the status of nails we can infer about the functional state of Asthi Dhatu as well as other Dhatu too. Since all the tissues are metabolically interdependent on each other.
Yuvan Pidika (Acne) Sukra Mala
Sharangdhar has considered acne as Mala of Sukra Dhatu. It is very scientific observation by Shrangdhar related to physiological actions of Sukra, as the generation of acne in adolescence period is related to androgenic activity of sex hormone. In Pitta Prakriti person there is tendency of having acne because of inherent dominance of Pitta Guna. In 80% cases of acne genetic predisposition is found.
Although there are many reasons for acne like in PCOD, hormonal replacement therapy or in cases of some drugs having androgenic effects.
प्रभूतविप्लुव्यङ्गतिलपिडकाः (C. Vi.8/97)
Assessment: Multiple Choice Questions
Q.1. Characteristic of Nail in Vata prakriti is …….
- Copperish in colour
- Dry and brittle
Q.2. Nails are produced in intrauterine life at …………. Month.
Q.3. Which statement is true about Nakha?
- It continue to grow even in case of Dhatu kshyas
- It is mala of Asthi dhatu
- It has dominance of Prithavi mahabhuta
- All of the above
Q.4. Which statement is true about kesha?
- It is mala of Ashti dhatu
- It continue to even grows in case of Ashti kshya
- Kesha of Kapha prakriti person are thick and black
- All of the above
Q.5.What is cause of Khalitya ?
- Excess of Pitta dosha
- Krodha, bhaya
- Excess intake of lavan rasa
- All of above
Q.6. Which statement is not true about Paalitya( premature greying of hairs)?
- Above the age of 70 yrs it is natural
- In Pitta prakriti persons premature greying is found
- It is also found in Rsas dhatu dusti
Q.7 Sweda is mala of which dhatu?
Q.8. Excess sweating is found in ……?
- Meda dusti
- Pitta Prakriti
- All of the above
Q.9. Characteristics of Hair in Pitta Prakriti ……?
- Black in colour
- Brownish in colour
- Less in quantity
- Both 2 &3
Q.10. Characteristics of hair in Vata prakriti ………?
- Dry and less in quantity
- Brown in colour
Answer sheet MCQ