Therapeutic Application of Vaitarana Basti
Dr. Rajkala P. Patil
Head & Associate Professor,
Department of Panchakarma,
Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi
Basti Chikitsa, a cornerstone of Panchakarma in Ayurveda, stands as a paramount therapeutic modality known for its profound healing effects. This ancient practice finds its roots in the wisdom of Ayurvedic sages and scholars who meticulously documented the art and science of Ayurveda. Among the various forms of Bastis, Acharya Chakradatta’s insightful work in Chapter 73 of the Niruhadhikara, a pivotal Ayurvedic text, has delineated three specific Bastis with meticulous detail. These Bastis, presented with specific quantities of therapeutic substances, play a crucial role in the treatment of various disease conditions.
One of these revered Bastis, known as Vaitarana Basti, finds its etymological roots in the Sanskrit term “Vitaranam,” which translates to “expulsion or to move from.” This nomenclature aptly encapsulates the primary purpose of Vaitarana Basti—to expel morbid Doshas from the body, offering respite and relief from the clutches of ailments. The knowledge of Vaitarana Basti is not limited to Acharya Chakradatta alone; it has been acknowledged and mentioned by eminent Ayurvedic authorities such as Vangasena, further adding to its credibility and significance in the world of Ayurveda. In this exploration of Vaitarana Basti, we will delve deeper into its specific applications, the therapeutic substances involved, and the disease conditions it addresses, shedding light on the invaluable contributions of Ayurveda to holistic well-being.
तैलयुतोङयं बस्ति: शूलानाहामवातहर: !! ”
“वैतरण: क्षारबस्तिर्भुकते चापि प्रदीयते!”
In Panchakarma, the timing of when certain treatments or therapies are administered is a critical aspect of ensuring their effectiveness and safety. Vaitarana and Kshara Basti are two specific therapeutic enemas used in Ayurvedic medicine, and they are known for their unique properties and applications. One notable characteristic of both Vaitarana and Kshara Basti is that they can be administered after a meal, unlike some other Bastis that typically require specific dietary restrictions before and after their administration.
- Gentle Nature: Vaitarana and Kshara Basti are considered relatively ruksha and tikshna when compared to some of the more potent and stimulating Bastis, like Anuvasana and Niruha Bastis. These ruksha Bastis are generally well-tolerated by most individuals and are less likely to cause discomfort, pain, or adverse reactions when given after a meal.
- Timing for Comfort: Giving Bastis after a meal can be more comfortable for the patient. Having a full stomach can reduce the sensation of discomfort that may arise during or after Basti administration due to presence of cow urine. It can also help ensure that the patient remains relaxed during the procedure, which is important for the therapeutic benefits of the Basti.
- Disease Conditions: The choice to give Vaitarana or Kshara Basti after a meal may be influenced by the presence of Ama in the disease or condition being treated. In some cases, these Bastis are recommended after food to aid in the management of particular condition, such as amavastha.
Mechanism of Action of Vaitarana Basti
Vaitarana Basti, an integral therapeutic enema in Ayurveda, operates through a unique and comprehensive mechanism that harnesses the properties of its key ingredients to deliver both curative and purificative effects. This holistic approach is vital in treating various disease conditions, particularly those related to imbalanced doshas and the accumulation of Ama, or toxins, in the body. Let’s explore how Vaitarana Basti works by breaking down its constituents and their roles in the healing process:
- Saindhava (Rock Salt): The inclusion of Saindhava in Vaitarana Basti is significant. With its Sukshma (subtle) and Tikshna (penetrating) properties, Saindhava facilitates the systemic absorption of the therapeutic substances. It aids in the efficient delivery of the Basti Dravya at the molecular level, allowing for a more profound and targeted impact. Furthermore, Saindhava’s irritant property supports the elimination of waste materials from the body, contributing to the detoxification process.
- Jaggery: In Vaitarana Basti, Jaggery is used in place of honey. Jaggery, when combined with Saindhava, creates a harmonious mixture. This concoction possesses properties that enhance its permeability, making it easier for the solution to interact with and be absorbed by water. This combination aids in carrying the therapeutic substances to micro-cellular levels within the body, ensuring that the healing effects reach deeply and comprehensively.
- Tilataila (Sesame Oil): Tilataila complements the properties of both Saindhava and Jaggery in the Basti. This synergy further contributes to the effectiveness of the treatment. Sesame oil is known for its nourishing and penetrating qualities, allowing it to act as a carrier for the Basti Dravya, promoting its absorption and distribution within the body.
- Chincha (Tamarind-Imli): Chincha is added to Vaitarana Basti due to its Vata-Kaphashamaka, Ruksha (dry), and Ushna (hot) properties. The Ruksha Guna helps counteract Ama, a principal pathogenic factor in many diseases. By addressing Ama, Chincha plays a pivotal role in restoring balance and health.
- Gomutra (Cow’s Urine): Gomutra is a key component of Vaitarana Basti, primarily due to its Katu Rasa (pungent taste), Katu Vipaka (pungent post-digestive effect), Ushna Virya (hot potency), and other properties such as Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry), and Tikshna (sharp). These properties pacify Kapha dosha, making Gomutra particularly valuable in the management of conditions like Amavata.
In summary, Vaitarana Basti’s mechanism of action is multifaceted. The combination of these ingredients, each with its unique properties, facilitates the absorption and distribution of the therapeutic substances. This comprehensive approach disrupts the pathogenic processes in the body and assists in carrying morbid matter to the Pakvashaya (colon) for elimination. Thus, Vaitarana Basti serves as both a curative and purificative measure, offering holistic relief and healing for a range of health conditions in the realm of Ayurveda.
Does and don’ts to be followed by patient during and after basti procedure.
अत्यासनस्थानवचांसि यानं स्वप्नं दिवा मैथुनवेगरोधान्||५४||
कालस्तु बस्त्यादिषु याति यावांस्तावान् भवेद्द्विः परिहारकालः|५४|
The practical applied aspect of Vaitarana basti is described as follows:
- Pre-requisites for formulation of basti: The following points should be in consideration to have good results;
- Tamarind paste (Chincha kalka):The tamarind paste is prepared after removing fiber and seeds from it. Actual weight of this paste is measured. Tamarind (chicha) should be soaked in water(room temperature) overnight, then fibrous & seed part extracted & remaining portion should be filtered with the help of fine cotton cloth. In case of instant preparation, the tamarind can be used after soaking it in hot water for fifteen minutes. Tamarind (chincha) should be old (purana), blackish in texture; should not having whitish coated texture.
- Jaggery: It should be use in melted form(semiliquid preparation). Jaggery should be added with 3-4ml hot water, mixed gently & then should be filtered out.It should not be grinned or rigorously stirred in any possible way.
- Cow urine: It should not have any turbidity in appearance or strong pungent smell. Foaming is observed when it is mixed with other contents. It ensures the fresh and qualitative aspect of cow urine. In absence of fresh cow urine, its extract (gomutraarka) is used after diluting it in 1:2 or 1:3 ratio with lukewarm water.
- B) Administration of basti to the patient:
- Vaitaranabasti should be administered at evening or in morning hours of day because during that time of a day pitta predominance is at its lower range or should say tikshnaguna effect is at its lowest peak
- Per rectal examination should be done before administration to check any anorectal disease like pile mass, sentinel tag, inflammation, fissure etc.Vaitaranabastiis contraindicated in such conditions.
Clinical indications and contraindications of vaitarana basti: The classical references of indications include shoola,anaha, amavata. Following table shows clinical conditions in which vaitarana basti can be useful as well as contraindications.
|Classical References||Current clinical correlations|
|Shoola (pain)||Vatashonita -Kaphaanubandha,
amavastha of Sandhivata.
Rhematoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Gout Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Systemic Lupus Erythematous, Avascular Necrosis.
|Anaha (flatulence)||Vaitaranabastiis contraindicated in flatulence originated due to any space occupying lesion, Ileitis, Colitis, Pancreatitis, Hepatitis, Chronic Liver Disease, High Grade Fever, Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative Colitis.|
|Amavata||Rheumatoid Arthritis,Osteoarthritis,Gout Arthritis,Ankylosing Spondylitis, Systemic Lupus Erythematous,Intervertebral Disc Prolapse,GreevagataVata,JanugataVata,Katigraha,Katishoola,Frozen Shoulder.|
- Anal diseases
- Skin diseases
- Blood disorders
- Pitta prakriti
MCQ on Vaitarana Basti:
MCQ 1: What is the etymological meaning of “Vaitarana” in Vaitarana Basti?
- A) To nourish the body
- B) To eliminate waste materials
- C) To expel morbid Doshas from the body
- D) To improve digestion
Answer: C) To expel morbid Doshas from the body
MCQ 2: Which ancient Ayurvedic text mentions Vaitarana Basti?
- A) Charaka Samhita
- B) Sushruta Samhita
- C) Vangasena
- D) Ashtanga Hridaya
Answer: C) Vangasena
MCQ 3: Why are Vaitarana and Kshara Basti administered after a meal?
- A) They are more effective on a full stomach.
- B) They have less potent ingredients.
- C) To cause discomfort to the patient.
- D) To ensure the patient remains relaxed during the procedure.
Answer: D) To ensure the patient remains relaxed during the procedure.
MCQ 4: Which property of Saindhava (Rock Salt) is essential for the mechanism of action of Vaitarana Basti?
- A) Its sweet taste
- B) Its cold potency
- C) Its subtle and penetrating nature
- D) Its sour taste
Answer: C) Its subtle and penetrating nature
MCQ 5: Why is Jaggery used in Vaitarana Basti instead of honey?
- A) Jaggery has a sweeter taste.
- B) Jaggery enhances permeability.
- C) Honey is less effective in Basti.
- D) Honey is harder to source.
Answer: B) Jaggery enhances permeability.
MCQ 6: What is the role of Tilataila (Sesame Oil) in Vaitarana Basti?
- A) It adds a pleasant fragrance to the Basti.
- B) It serves as a laxative.
- C) It complements the properties of other ingredients and aids in their absorption.
- D) It cools the body.
Answer: C) It complements the properties of other ingredients and aids in their absorption.
MCQ 7: Which dosha is primarily pacified by Gomutra in Vaitarana Basti?
- A) Vata
- B) Pitta
- C) Kapha
- D) All doshas equally
Answer: C) Kapha
MCQ 8: Why is Vaitarana Basti considered both curative and purificative?
- A) It contains a wide range of ingredients.
- B) It disrupts pathogenic processes and eliminates morbid matter.
- C) It has a sweet taste.
- D) It requires a long duration of administration.
Answer: B) It disrupts pathogenic processes and eliminates morbid matter.
MCQ 9: When is Vaitarana Basti typically administered during the day for optimal results?
- A) In the afternoon
- B) At midnight
- C) In the evening or morning hours
- D) In the morning
Answer: C) In the evening or morning hours
MCQ 10: What should be checked through per rectal examination before administering Vaitarana Basti?
- A) The patient’s pulse rate
- B) The patient’s body temperature
- C) The presence of anorectal diseases
- D) The patient’s body weight
Answer: C) The presence of anorectal diseases
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