“CLASSIFICATION OF AUSHADHA DRAVYA IN BRIHAT-TRAYEE”
Dr. Binay Sen
Assistant Professor, Department of Dravyaguna,
Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, VARANASI
- Introduction (aushadha, dravya, aushadha dravya, classification)
- Necessity/ application of classification
- Classification of aushadha dravya (basic, morphological, pharmacological, useful parts, number/quantum & specific classification)
- Discussion (Scope for future expansion)
Brihat-trayee consists of Charaka Samhitā, Sushruta Samhitā and Ashtānga Hriday/ Ashtānga Samgraha. All the general classification of Dravya (referred in previous lecture “CLASSIFICATION OF ĀHĀRA DRAVYA IN BRIHAT-TRAYEE” is also applicable for the classification of Aushadha dravya. Useful parts of plant are referred under Audbhida gana (useful parts) (CS.Su.1/73-74). The content of the presentation is designed on the basis of audbhida gana, morphological characters, pharmacological properties, action, uses, useful parts etc to classify the substances.Further, those useful parts are not found in Brihat-trayi in classification, are proposed here as a new idea of future classification technique. Commentator’s views are referred for expansion of new classification also.
(Kāshyapa Samhitā. Khila-sthāna.3)
|Oshadhi||Being a locus of rasa (osa), it is oshadhi.|
|Oshadha||Using ‘osa’ disease free state is obtained, thus it is oshadha.|
|Bheshaja||To be known by bhishak (physician)/ equipment or measures needed for making effort to balance dhātus by the physician.|
|Bhaishajya||Being beneficial for defeating diseases.|
|Agada||On application leads to non-recurrence of gada (disease).|
|Kashāya||Rubs the throat or expel out the disease or predominant use of kashāya (decoction) in all diseases.|
Dravya/ Aushadha dravya
- Dravya is derived from the verb ‘dru-gatau’, means ‘movement’ or ‘attainment’ in this context. It is the substratum of properties and action, inherent cause of its action. The dravya is used in form of anna (diets) & aushadha (medicine) for maintenance of health and curing of diseases respectively.
- Aushadha dravya: When applied in forms of aushadha (medicine), due to its potency (osa), it causes kshaya (decrease) or vriddhi (increase) of doshas, to bring back sthāna/sāmyāvasthā (normalcy), the disease free state (ārogya).
The process of collecting indefinite or definite numbers of substances in a group is known as classification in Ayurveda. The group of drugs are also referred as gana, varga, mahākashāya, and sometimes adding suffix ‘ādi’ as vidārigandhādi, agurvādi, madukādi etc. The nomenclature of such group is given on the basis of different spectrum like properties, actions and so on.
NECESSITY/ APPLICATION OF CLASSIFICATION
- Innumerable substances, need to grouping.
- To study the habitat, morphological characters, properties and actions.
- Systematic distribution for easy understanding, scientific study & research.
- For easy referencing and cataloging.
- To avoid repetition.
- Identification purpose.
- Knowledge of hidden ideas.
CLASSIFICATION OF AUSHADHA DRAVYA
- Basic classification
- According to Source: (03) Audbhida/ Sthāvara (pants origin), Jāngama (animal) & Bhauma/Pārthiva (metals & minerals) (CS.Su.1/68-71; SS.Su.1/28-32).
- According to Bhautika composition: Pārthiva, Āpya, Āgneya, Vāyavya & Ākashātmaka (CS.Su.26/11)
- Acc to Vyapāshraya (type of agents employed): Daiva (spiritual) & Yukti (rational) (CS.Vi.8/87).
- Acc to form (Anga): Dravyabhoota (Material) & Adravya-bhoota (Non-material) (CS.Vi.8/87, AS.Su.12/3)
Acc to application:
- Acc to habit: 04 types;
- Vanaspati: Trees with hypanthodium type inflorescence; eg. Vata, Plaksha, Udumbara
- Vānaspatya/Vriksha: Trees with manifested florescence; eg. Amra, Jambu
- Virudh : Shrubs (gulma) and weak plants (lata)
- Phalapākānta/phalanishthā (dies after fruit ripen, eg. Shāli, Tila)
- Pākāntā/ pākanishthā (dies after completely matured, eg. Durvā, Chhatraka- all herbaceous plants) (CS.Su.1/71-72, SS.Su.1/29; Ck.CS.Su.1/68-73, Dal. SS.Su.1/29.
- Acc to variety: Chatasra Koshātaki: Brihatphalā, Alpaphalā, Pitapushpā & Swetapushpā (Dal.SS.Su.11/11)
- Mahākoshātaki- Luffa cylindrica
- Koshātaki/kritavedhana- acutangula
- Tikta kritavedhana- acutangula var. amara
- Devadāli- echinata
- Vatsanābha- 04, Mustaka- 02, Sarshapa- 06 (SS.Kal.2/6)
- Mahatpanchamoola (roots of 5 big trees)
- Kaniya-panchamoola (roots of 5 small plants)
- Vallipanchamoola (roots of 5 creeper/weak plants)
- Kantaka panchamoola (roots of 5 thorny plants)
- Trina-panchamoola (roots of 5 grasses) (SS.Su.38/66-75)
- Acc to habitat :
- Haimavatā (habitat in Himalaya/ northern region) & Dakshinapathagā (habitat in southern region) (SS.Ci.4/29) [Kasturi, Shati, Kustha, Devadaru etc…Chandana, Jātiphala, Lavanga etc.-Dalhana]
- Ānupa & Sthalaja Kleetaka (CS.Su.1/81)
- Acc to sexuality: Kutajadwaya-Pum & Stree (CS.Ka.5/3-5)
- Pharmacological Classification
- Acc to Pharmacodynamic properties
- Rasa (Taste):
Āsthāpana dravya (06): Madhura-Amla-Lavana-Katu-Tikta & Kashāya skandha (CS.Vi.8/139-144). In Sushruta Samhita, they are referred as Madhura-Amla- Lavana-Katu-Tikta & Kashāya varga (SS.Su.42/11).
- Gandha (smell): Gandhā (aromatic plants) (CS.Su.5/27; SS.Ci.4/29), Sarvagandha/Sarvagandhika (SS.Ka.3/12, Ut. 27/20, 31/6), Trijātaka, Chaturjātaka (AH.Su.6/160), Mukhavaishadya/ sugandhi kara (SS.Su.46/485-86, CS.Su.5/76-7).
- Veerya (potency): Chandanādi-tailam (Ci.3/258), Agurvādy-tailam (Ci.3/267), Agurupatrādya (CS. Su.5/27; Agurvādya minus Kushtha & Tagara; because of excessive sharpness, there is fear of mastulunga-srāva-Chakrapāni). Mridu : Āmalaki etc. Madhya: Bilwa, Agnimantha etc. Tikshna : Shunthi etc. (CK, CS.Su.2/17).
- Karma (action):
- Dosha-prashamana/Shamana (pacifying): Āmalaki, Haritaki
- Dhātu-pradushana/Kopana (Aggravating): Māsha, Dadhi, Visha.
- Svasthavrittau matam/Swasthahita (Maintaining homeostasis) (CS.Su.1.67, AH.Su.1/16): Rakta-shāli (CS.Su.25/38), Rasāyana (CS.Ci.1) & Vājikarana (CS.Ci.2)
- 50 Mahākashāya (CS.Su.4): As per use in different systems.
- GIT system: Deepaniya, Vamanopaga, Virechanopaga
- Respiratory: Shvāsahara, Kāsahara
- Hemopoetic & Vascular: Shonitasthāpana, Hridya
- Reproductive System: Shukrajanana, Prajāsthāpana
- Urinary: Mootra (samgrahaniya, virechaniya, virajaniya)
- Nervous: Sangyāsthāpana
- Dhatus: Jeevaniya,. Brimhaniya, Balya
- Skin: Svedopaga, Kandughna, Kushthaghna, Varnya etc.
- Vidārigandhādi 37 Groups (SS.Su.38).
- Samshodhana 4 & Samshamana 3 group (SS.Su.39/3-9; AS.Su.14).
- 33 groups (AH.Su.15): Jeevaniya of Charaka & rest of Sushruta.
- 45 Mahākashāya (AS.Su.15) of CS (Vamanopaga to shirovirechanopaga 5 mahākashāya of Charaka are not mentioned).
- Avajayana/ Shamana varga: 3(Vāta, Pitta & Kapha) (CS.Vi.6/16-18)
- Shodhana varga
- Vamana/ urdhwabhāgahara dravya- (CS.Su.2/7-8, Vi.8/135; SS.Su.39/3)
- Virechana/ Adhobhāgahara dravya (CS.Su.2/9-10, Vi.8/136; SS.Su.39/4)
- Āsthapana dravya (CS.Su.2/11-13, Vi.8/137-48)
- Anuvāsana dravya (CS.Su.2/14, Vi.8/150)
- Shirovirechana dravya (CS.Su.2/3-5, Vi.8/151; SS.Su.39/6)
- Ubhayotabhāgahara (SS.Su.39/5)
- Dhoomopayogi dravya: 3 groups useful for medicated smoking (Prāyogika, snaihika & tikshna dhoomopayogi) (AS.Su.14/7-9).
- According to route of administration
- Antah-parimārjaniya: Panchakārmika dravya (CS.Su.2)
- Bahih-parimarjaniya : 32 external application of medicated paste (CS.Su.3)
- As per use in Shadopakrama: Langhaniya, Brimhaniya, Rukshaniya, Snehaniya, Swedaniya & Stambhaniya dravya (CS.Su.22)
- As per specific indication:
- Panchāmla (Kola, dādima, vrikshāmla, chāngeri, chukrikā)- pacifies thirst (CS.Ci.24/151).
- Panchatikta (Patola, nimba, bhunimba, rāsnā & saptaparna)- cures meha, kushtha (CS.Si.8/8-9).
- Panchakashāya (Tinduka, haritaki, lodhra, samangā & āmalaki)- ear disease (SS.Ut.21/42,46-Dal.).
- Agrya Aushadhi (CS.Su.25/40, AH.Ut.40/48-58, AS.Su.13/2)
- Nidrākara (CS.Su.21/52-54)
- Sangyā-prabodhana (CS.Su.24/46-49)
- Mukhashodhana (CS.Su.5/76-77)
- Mukhavaishadyakara (SS.Su.46/485-86)
- Danta-shodhana (CS.Su.5/73)
- Garbha-sthāpana (CS.Sa.8/24)
- Garbha-vriddhikara (CS.Sa.8/27)
- Aparāpātana (CS.Sa.8/41, SS.Sa.2/10)
- Rakshoghna (CS.Sa.8/47, SS.Su.5/18, 19/28, 37/21 etc.)
- Anupāna varga:
Any liquid substance used either mixing with drug or after taking the drug is called anupāna (vehicle/after-drink). Sushruta indipendently described anupāna varga (SS.Su.46/422-445). Charaka has described it (without naming group) after completion of āhāra-varga (Su.27/319-28).
- 09 types Āsava yoni (sources of fermented liquors)-
- Dhānyāsava (cereals)-06, Phalāsava (fruits)-26, Moolāsava (roots)- 11, Sārāsava (heartwoods)-20, Pushpāsava(flowers)- 10, Kandāsava (stems)- 04, Patrāsava (leaves)- 02, Twagāsava (barks)- 04, Sharkarāsava (Themeda arundinaceae )-01 (CS.Su.25/49).
- Panchasāra: A drink made of boiled milk along with hand macerated sugar, pippali, honey & ghee (SS.Ut.39/254-55 & Dalhana).
According to useful parts
There are many references of useful parts and classification accordingly are found in Brihat-trayee. Audbhida gana (CS.Su.1/73-74), 6 categories of Shadvirechana-āshraya (latex, root, bark, leaf, flower & fruit) (CS.Su.4/5) and categories of Shiro-virechaniya dravya (fruits, leaves, roots, tubers, flowers, exudates & barks) (CS.Vi.8/151) may be referred for this classification. Sushruta also added heartwood, inorganic substances, fermented beverages and excretions under shiro-virechana dravya (SS.Su.39/6).
- Panchamoola (total-7)
- 16 Moolini dravya (Su.1/77-80)
- Shiro-virechaniya dravya (CS.Vi.8/151; SS.Su.39/6)
- Twak (bark)
- Pancha-valkala (CS.Ci.30/62)
- Ksheerini dravya: (CS.Su.1/114-15)
- Shiro-virechaniya dravya (CS.Vi.8/151; SS.Su.39/6)
- Sāra: Shalasaradi gana (SS.Su.38/8; SS.Su.39/6)
- Niryāsa : Shiro-virechaniya dravya (CS.Vi.8/151; SS.Su.39/6)
- Kshāra: (SS.Su.11/11), Sarvakshara (CS.Su.27/306)
- Ksheera: Ksheerini dravya (CS.Su.1/114-15), Kshirivriksha (SS.Ut.39/257)
- Phala (fruits): 19 Phalini dravya (CS.Su.1/80-83), Triphalā (SS.Su.38/56), Shiro-virechaniya dravya (CS.Vi.8/151; SS.Su.39/6).
- Pushpa (flowers): Shiro-virechaniya dravya (CS.Vi.8/151; SS.Su.39/6), Madhookapushpādi (SS.Ut.48/26, Raktapittaghna gana-Dal.)
- Taila: CS.Su.27/286-94; SS.Su.45/112-31
- Patra (leaf): Shiro-virechaniya dravya (CS.Vi.8/151; SS.Su.39/6)
- Kanda (tubers): Shiro-virechaniya dravya (CS.Vi.8/151; SS.Su.39/6)
- Pancha-shirisha (CS.Ci.23/218)
- Panchagavya (SS.Ut.39/240-42)
Acc to number/quantum of drugs used
- Sthirādi (21drugs CS.Ci.9/ 42, Ci.26/74)
- Phalādi-1 (Madanaphala etc 6 drugs; Ka.2/13, 1/6, 6/11,12)
- Phalādi-2 (7 shiro-virechana dravya; CS.Si.9/96)
- Panchakola (AH.Su.6/166)
- Triphalā (SS.Su.38/56)
- Rāsna-sthirādi (CS.Ci.26/ 160)
- Shākādi (CS.Ka.1/14)
- Kovidārādi (CS.Ka.1/16, 6/10)
- Kshirādi (CS.Ka.1/12; 6/5)
- Kusumādi (CS.Ka.6/5)
- Madhukādi (CS.Ka.6/6)
- Shatyādi & Brihatyādi (CS.Ci.3/211-14)
- Katakādi (CS.Ci.26/74).
- Divya aushadhis (Ci.1-4/7-10)
- Mahaushadhi (SS.Ci.30/5)
- The word ‘Aushadha’ is also synonymous to Chikitsā-karma (therapy). Hence 3 types of aushadha; eg. Apakarshana, Prakriti-vighāta & Nidānatyāga; Hetuviparita, vyadhiviparita & ubhayarthakari etc (AS.Su.12/5-6) are not referred here.
- The term ‘oshadhi’ also refers to herbaceous plant (CS.Su.1/72) in specific and all medicinal plants (CS.Su.1/120-22) in general.
- The classification of aushadha dravya in Brihat-trayee is mostly pharmacological classification.
- In a group (mahakashaya, skandha, varga, gana), inductive approach is adopted i.e the number of drugs are symbolic only. The wise can include, exclude, subtract or re-grouped as per the doshik variation. Drugs having similar properties, indication or action are kept in a group, eg. Jeevaniya mahakashaya, Madhura skandha, vatasamshamaniya varga, Vidārigandhādi gana etc.
- Charaka Samhitā, being a school of medicine, classification of drugs mostly seen on the basis of medicinal uses; whereas Sushruta added groups of surgical and para-surgical too. Vāgbhata compiled both in many instances. Aushadha varga a unique classification of Anna-dravya by Vāgbhata. Lavana, kshāra, single drugs like hingu, haritaki and groups triphalā, trijāta, panchakola, 5 panchamoola are described in aushadha varga (AH.Su.6/143-71).
- Lavana, Sarva-kshāra found place in Aushadha varga in AH, whereas Charaka described under Ahārayogi & Sushruta as separate groups (lavana varga, kshara varga under annadravya).
- For a single group, more than one basis of nomenclature may be applied, eg. Vata, Udumbara, Ashwattha, Pārisha and Plaksha are classified as Panchavalkala (when bark is used) and Pancha-ksheerivriksha (latex), trikatu (3/pungent drugs) etc.
- It is observed that the classification of dravya is applicable for both the aushadha and āhāra dravya. Similarly substances are classified with the objectives of application into either group (aushadha and ahara) or inter se. The aushadha varga of Vagbhata, incorporated lavana, kshara and other spices used as ahara-yogi (food additive and preservatives) by Charaka, indicating that such substances are also having medicinal values apart from their primary function in adding with foods. Mootra (urine), Dhātu (metals) and Ratna (gems) are mostly used as medicine though included in Dravadravya and Annadravya by Sushrata. Similarly, many substances of Phala, Shāka, Harita varga of Annadravya are used as medicine. Hence it is clear that same substance is used as either form, and Chakrapani clearly demarcated āhāra dravya predominantly of rasa (taste) and aushadha of veerya (potency). This statement further quantifies the volume of intake. Since the classification has multi dimensional approach, newer technique may be adopted for further classification of aushadha dravya in present era.
Scope for future expansion
Every substances can be used as medicine with definite objectives and rationalism (CS.Su.26/12) and the number of drugs in a group, is just a figure for practical knowledge (CS.Su.4/27-28). It could be said that as dravyas, their combinations (inter-group), adjunction, disjunction (intra-group), rasa, anurasa etc properties & objectives of their use are innumerable, hence classification could be innumerable. This is substantiated by many textual references like combination and permutation of rasa (CS.Su.26/23; Su.25/49) and other contexts (CS.Vi.8/138,149; SS.Su.38/82). A group may be combined with another or several other groups based on reasoning and rationality (same rasa, same vipāka, same prabhāva etc). Here some examples of extension of classification are given;
Bhadrādi gana for vātasamshamana varga (Dal, SS.Ci.7/14), Haritakyādi for triphalā (SS.Ci.7/26) have been referred in text. Hence, Mandukaparnyādi rasāyana for Medhya-rasāyana (Ci.1-3/30-31), Brahmasuvarchalādi rasāyana for Divya-aushadhi (CS.Ci.1-3/7), a new nomenclature may be adopted.
Creation of New varga
Under audbhida gana (plant parts used), 18 groups are referred (CS.Su.1/73-74). Out of which Nāla/da (stalks-lotus), Swarasa (expressed juice-neem, vāsaka), Pallava (tender leaves-jāti), Bhasma (ash), Kantaka (thorns-shālmali), Shunga (leaf-buds, vata) and Praroha (sprouts/ariel routs-nyagrodha) are not found as independent group. These may be created as new group. Similarly, reference of Phala-majjā is found (SS.Su.46/205-207), Hence, ‘Phala-majja varga’ may be created including Haritaki, Vibhitaka, Vātād, Jātiphala etc. ‘Beeja-kosha (aril) varga’ including Padmakarnikā, Jāvitri etc is another example.
Number of drugs used
Eksara gana (SS.Ka.5/85-86) is an example which is indicated to be taken in a number of one, two, three and so on. Similarly, entire group, its half, in a fraction or whatever drug is available should be considered for use (SS.Su.37/33, 38/82). Hence, this is a classical idea by which we can create many sub-classification of a designated group.
- Classification of Aushadha dravya is mainly based on pharmacological properties and action.
- Plant origin classification is predominant followed by animal origin and inorganic substances.
- Classification provides data related to morphological characters, habitat, identification, useful parts, pharmacological properties and action.
- Multi-approach classification is observed.
- Specific classification with specific objectives is also found.
|1. In the word ‘Oshadhi’, osa means
D. All the above
2. According to anga, bheshaja is of
(a) 2 types
(b) 3 types
(c) 4 types
(d) 5 types
3. Example of Vanaspati is
(d) All the above
4. Variety of koshātaki described by Sushruta
5. Example of Haimavatā (habitat in Himalaya/ northern region)
6. Example of Dakshinapathagā (habitat in southern region)
7. Ānupa & Sthalaja are the type of
8. Aushadha varga is mentioned by
9. Numbers of Skandha of Āsthāpana dravya described by Charaka
10. Which one statement is correct for group ‘Agurupatrādya’
(a) Agurvādya except Kushtha
(b) Agurvādya except Tagara
(c) Agurvādya except Kushtha and Tagara (Nata)
(d) None of the above
11. According to Chakrapani, Mridu-veerya dravya is
12. Which one statement is correct for Panchāmla
(a) It pacifies thirst
(b) It cures meha
(c) It cures kushtha
(d) Indicated in ear disease
13. Agrya Aushadhis are described by Charaka in
14. On the basis of useful parts, Shiro-virechaniya dravya are classified into
(a) 5 types
(b) 6 types
(c) 7 types
(d) 9 types
15. Which statement is correct for ‘Trinapanchamoola’ ingredients in Sushruta Samhitā and Ashtānga Hridaya
(a) Darbha and Kāsha are common.
(b) Shara and Shāli are common
(c) Kusha and Nala are common
(d) Kusha and kāsha are common.
16. Jala-prasādaniya group is first described by
(d) Vriddha Vāgbhat
17. Which statement is correct for Lavana
(a) Charaka has described it under Ahārayogi
(b) Sushruta described it as an independent group
(c) Vāgbhata has described under Aushadha varga
(d) All of the above
18. The group of five drugs namely Vata, Udumbara, Ashwattha, Pārisha and Plaksha is known as
(c) Both a & b
(d) None of the above
19. A classical example to use one, two or three drugs from a designated group is
20. Which gana is also referred as vātasamshamana varga by Sushruta
Keys to MCQ
|1.||B||Kāshyapa Samhitā. Khila-sthāna.3/27|
|3.||D||Chakrapāni, CS.Su.1/68-73, Dalhana SS.Su.1/29|
|10.||C||Chakrapāni, CS. Su.5/27|
|17.||D||CS.Su.27/300-304 ; SS.Su.46/313; AH.Su.6/143-49|
|20.||B||Dalhana, SS.Ci.7/14 & SS.Su.39/7|
- Charaka Samhitā. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak (Accessed on 03 March 2021).
- Sushruta Samhitā. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta (Accessed on 03 March 2021).
- Acharya Y T (editor). Charaka Samhitā of Agnivesha with ‘Ayurveda-Dipikā’commentary by Chakrapanidatta, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2000.
- Acharya J T & Acharya N R (editors). Sushruta Samhitā of Sushruta with ‘Nibandhasangraha’ commentary by Dalhana, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003.
- Hari Shastri Paradakara (editor), Ashtānga Hridayam of Vāgbhata with commentaries ‘Sarvāngasundarā’ of Arunadatta & ‘Ayurvedarasāyana’ of Hemādri, Reprint Edition 9th, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, 2005.
- Sharma S P (editor), Ashtānga Samgraha of Vriddha Vāgbhata Shashilekha commentary by Indu, 1st edn, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 2006
- Tewari P V (editor & translator), Kāshyapa Samhita, 1st edn, Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi, 1996
- Priya Vrat Sharma (editor & translator). Charaka Samhitā (Text with English Translation), vol.I, Reprint Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi 2011.
- Priya Vrat Sharma (editor & translator). Charaka Samhitā (Critical Notes), vol. III, 6th Edition, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi 2001.
- Priya Vrat Sharma (editor & translator). Sushruta Samhitā (with English translation of texts and Dalhana’s commentary along with critical notes), vol. I, 1st Edition, Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi 1999.
- Satya Deo Dubey and Anugrah Narain Singh, Basic Concepts of Dravyaguna Vijnāna, 1st Edition, Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi 2014.
- V V Prasad (editor), P V Sharma & S R Talmale (author). 2002, Plants and other drugs of Sushruta Samhitā Saptadhyāyi, Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth Publication, New Delhi.