Module on “Overview of Snehana Therapy” Talk By- Dr. Rajkala P. Patil

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  Overview of Snehana therapy   

Dr. Rajkala P. Patil
Head & Associate Professor,
Department of Panchakarma,
Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi

 

  Introduction:       

In Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine rooted in India, the term “Snehana” holds a central role, signifying a therapeutic practice focused on enhancing the “snigdha guna,” which translates to the unctuous or oily quality within the body. This essential concept of Ayurveda encompasses two distinct methods:

  1. External Snehana: Under this approach, known as “Snehana,” practitioners apply specific oily substances, collectively referred to as “Sneha,” to the external surfaces of the body. These Sneha substances encompass various oils, ghee (clarified butter), vasa (muscle fat), and majja (marrow). The primary objective of external Snehana is to nourish and lubricate the skin and underlying tissues, ultimately fostering suppleness and flexibility. This external Snehana often serves as a vital preliminary step to prepare the body for subsequent treatments such as massage or Panchakarma detoxification.
  2. Internal Snehana (Snehapana): The second facet of Snehana, known as “Snehapana,” involves the internal consumption of Sneha or oily substances. This method typically encompasses the intake of medicated oils or ghee. Internal Snehana aims to lubricate the digestive tract, offering a wide range of therapeutic benefits, including the improvement of digestion, facilitation of regular bowel movements, and prepping the body for detoxification therapies such as Virechana or Vamana.
    The choice of specific Sneha substances and the manner of their application are determined by an individual’s unique constitution (Prakriti) and any prevailing imbalances (Vikriti). This individualized approach ensures that Snehana effectively balances the body’s doshas (Vata, Pitta, and Kapha) and supports overall health and well-being.

  Definition of Sneha    

Snehana is the term used to describe the process by which the qualities of oiliness (snigdhata), liquefaction (visyandana), softness (mardavata), and moistness (kledana) are achieved.

स्नेहनं स्नेहविष्यन्दमार्दवक्लेदकारकम् [६] |
Cha.Su.22/11

  Sushruta’s view    

स्नेहसारोऽयं पुरुषः, प्राणाश्च स्नेहभूयिष्ठाः स्नेहसाध्याश्च भवन्ति |
स्नेहो हि पानानुवासनमस्तिष्कशिरोबस्त्युत्तरबस्तिनस्यकर्णपूरणगात्राभ्यङ्गभोजनेषूपयोज्यः ||३
||
Su.Chi.31/3

“The person is the essence of sneha, and the vital forces within are also essence of sneha. They become capable of achieving affection through sneha.” 

   What Sneha does in the body ?   

स्नेहोऽनिलं हन्ति मृदूकरोति देहं मलानां विनिहन्ति सङ्गम्||७||

  Properties of Snehana dravya   

  1. Guru (Heavy)
  2. Sheeta (Cold)
  3. Sara (Fluid)
  4. Snigdha (Unctuous) 
  5. Manda (Sluggish)
  6. Sukshma (Subtle)
  7. Mrudu (Soft)
  8. Drava (Liquid) 

  Qualities of a person who takes Sneha daily   

Regular consumption of Sneha brings numerous advantages. It maintains robust metabolic energy, ensuring efficient digestion and tissue nourishment, promoting strength and a healthy complexion. Senses sharpen, aging slows, and one may even reach a century of life with the consistent use of nourishing oils or Sneha.

दीप्तान्तरग्निः परिशुद्धकोष्ठः प्रत्यग्रधातुर्बलवर्णयुक्तः |
दृढेन्द्रियो मन्दजरः शतायुः स्नेहोपसेवी पुरुषो भवेत्तु ||५६
||
Su.Chi.

  Classification of Snehana  

  Classification according to use   

 Uses as per Paka of Sneha     

Acharya  Nasya Pana  Abhyanga  Basti  Karnapurana 
Charaka  Mridu  Madhyama  Khara  Madhyama 
Sushruta  Madhyama  Mridu Madhyama  Khara  Khara 
Vagbhata  Mridu Chikkan  Khara  Chikkan 
Sharangdhara  Mridu Madhyama Madhyama Madhyama Madhyama

 

 Variations of Bahya sneha as per style of administration    

  • Retaining type
    • Shirobasti, Akshi Tarpana
    • Gandusha, Karna Purana, Katibasti 
  • Pouring type 
    • Shirodhara 
    • Sneha Parisheka 
  • Applying type 
    • Pichu
    • Utsadana
  • Massaging type 
    • Abhyanga, 
    • Pizhini Tadwal

  Dose of Sneha   

  1. Hrisiyasi: Digestion Time: Within 3 hours

Significance: Hrisiyasi Sneha dose are the easiest to digest. They are light and gentle on the stomach. Consuming of Hrisiyasi sneha is recommended for those with weak digestion or if physician doesn’t know the type of Koshtha.

  1. Hrasva Matra:
    – Digestion Time: Within 6 hours
    – Significance: Hrasva matra sneha take a little longer to digest compared to Hrisiyasi. It’s suitable for those with moderate digestion capabilities.
  1. Madhyama Matra:
    – Digestion Time: 12 hours
    – Significance: Madhyama Matra have a moderate digestion time. This is suitable for people with good digestion.
  1. Uttama Matra:
    – Digestion Time: 24 hours
    – Significance: Uttama Matra sneha are the slowest to digest. This dose is generally recommended in moderation and should be consumed by individuals with robust digestion.

Certainly, here’s the information in a text-based format:

 As per the Basis of Administration:  

  1. Accha Sneha:
    – Description: Accha Sneha involves the intake of pure Sneha, which refers to oily or fatty substances used in Ayurveda.
    – Indications: Accha Sneha is administered when pure Sneha is required as a therapeutic measure. This method is often used in specific treatments for various health conditions.
  1. Vicharana Sneha:
    – Description: Vicharana Sneha involves the administration of Sneha internally or externally along with various food articles or route of administration. It encompasses a range of methods to incorporate oils or fats into treatment.
    – Methods of Administration: Vicharana Sneha can be administered through methods such as Odana (consumption with food), Vilepi (external application), Yavagu (soups), Yusha (gruels), as well as other methods like Gandusha (oil pulling), nasya (nasal application), uttarbasti (rectal enema), karnapurana (ear drops), etc.
    – Indications: Vicharana Sneha is chosen when specific therapeutic formulations are needed along with Sneha. It is a versatile approach to address various health issues.

 Indications for Vicharana Sneha:  

  1. Aversion to Sneha:
    – When a patient dislikes or cannot tolerate the taste or texture of pure Sneha, Vicharana Sneha methods may be employed.
  2. Daily Alcohol User:
    – Individuals who consume alcohol regularly may have certain health imbalances, and Vicharana Sneha can be used for them.
  3. Mridu Koshtha (Mild Digestion):
    – People with a delicate or weak digestive system (mridu koshtha) may benefit from Vicharana Sneha, as it can be customized to their digestive capacity.
  4. Who is Unable to Withstand Suffering or Unwelcome Challenges:
    – Patients who are sensitive or have low tolerance for physical or emotional suffering may receive Vicharana Sneha to make the treatment more palatable and gentler.
  5. Child:
    – Children often require special formulations and administration methods. Vicharana Sneha can be adapted to suit their age and specific health needs.
  6. Old Age:
    – The elderly may have unique health concerns, and Vicharana Sneha can be customized to address their age-related issues and preferences.
  7. Sukumara (Delicate Individuals):
    – Sukumara individuals, who are inherently delicate, may find Vicharana Sneha more suitable as it can be adjusted to their constitution and requirements.

  On the basis of relation with food  

  1. Auttarabhaktika Sneha: when Sneha is administered after meal
    Indicated in Urdhwajatugata roga- Talu shosha, Trishna
  2. Avapeedaka Sarpi: Sneha given at middle of meal
    Hrasva matra- Before food
    Uttama matra- After digestion of meal
    Indicated in diseases of urinary system, Vatavyadhi, Arsha

मूत्रजेषु तु पाने च प्राग्भक्तं शस्यते घृतम्||६||
जीर्णान्तिकं चोत्तमया मात्रया योजनाद्वयम्|
अवपीडकमेतच्च संज्ञितं–
A.H.Su.4/6

 Four best Sneha: Ghee    

तत्र धीस्मृतिमेधादिकाङ्क्षिणां शस्यते घृतम्||८||

Samskarasya anuvartanaat….
The special quality of adaptability
It mitigates Vata and Pitta,
Enhances voice quality, strength, complexion, intelligence, memory
Those who desire for longevity
Ghee classification as per years
0-1 year: Nava
> 1 yr= Purana (this again classified further)
1-10 yrs= Purana Ghrita
11-100 yrs= Prapurana Ghrita
101-110 yrs= Kumbham
> 110 yrs = Maha Ghrita  

  Taila     

ग्रन्थिनाडीकृमिश्लेष्ममेदोमारुतरोगिषु|
तैलं लाघवदार्ढ्यार्थिक्रूरकोष्ठेषु देहिषु||९||

Pacify vata & kapha 

Krimighna
Garbhashaya shodhana
Bhagna sandhankara, Nadivrana
Krura koshtha
Those who desire strength
Vasa 

-वसा तु सन्ध्यस्थिमर्मकोष्ठरुजासु च|
तथा दग्धाहतभ्रष्टयोनिकर्णशिरोरुजि||११||

Those who are able to tolerate wind and sunlight
Emaciated by weight lifting and coitus or excessive walking
Decreased semen and blood

Majja
In Madhava( Vasant) rutu
Those who can tolerate trouble,
Krura koshtha
Those who are desire of bala sukra, mamsa, asthi vardhana 

वातातपाध्वभारस्त्रीव्यायामक्षीणधातुषु|
रूक्षक्लेशक्षमात्यग्निवातावृतपथेषु च||१०||
शेषौ

  Internal snehapana   

Shamana: administration of Sneha after getting appetite – moderate dose
शमनः क्षुद्वतोऽनन्नो मध्यमात्रश्च शस्यते||१९||

Shodhana : uttam matra, empty stomach
ह्यस्तने जीर्ण एवान्ने स्नेहोऽच्छः शुद्धये बहुः|

Brimhana : small dose along with food
बृंहणो रसमद्याद्यैः सभक्तोऽल्पः

  Relation of brimhana Sneha with food   

Before Meal:
– Prepares the body
– Strengthens the lower body.
– Helps with Vata balance.

Middle of Meal:
– Optimizes digestion (agni bala).
– Provides overall body stability.
– Eases abdominal discomfort.

After Meal:
– Focuses on the head and neck.
– Enhances sense organ stability.
– Addresses related disorders.Indications of snehapana 

Indicated for Shodhana
Elderly, child, Those who do more exercise, Who think more, Addicted to alcohol intake
Vata vyadhi, Oligospermia, Anaemia 

Contra-indications
Indigestion, Vomiting, Diarrhoea, Akala prasuta (delivered at improper time)
Rukshanarha (Fit for Rukshana), Sthula (obese), Udara Roga (ascites), Datta shodhana (Nasya, Basti, Virechana)

Season and Sneha

  • Sharad (Autumn)– Ghee 
  • Pravrita (Varsha)- Taila 
  • Madhava (March)- Vasa, Majja 
  • Vata Pitta vitiated, summer- in night 
  • Kapha vitiated, winter, – in day time 

Dose of Sneha – Sushruta 

Dose of Sneha (Charaka)

Practice of snehapana of Vardhaman krama or Arohana krama is described by Vangasena (12th AD). 

Koshtha assessment 

Krura-Vata predominance 

 Time taken for stool, frequency per day, consistency of stool, history of diarrhoea   

Mridu -Pitta Predominance

Madhyama- Kapha Predominance  

Assessemnt by clinical history or Sneha prakarsha kala

Type of koshtha and duration 

  • Mridu tama -1 day 
  • Mridu tara 2 days
  • Mridu- 3 days 
  • Madhyama tama – 4 dyas
  • Madhyama tara- 5 days 
  • Madhyama – 6 days 
  • Krura- 7 days 
  • Krura tara- 8 days 
  • Krura tama- 9 days 

Snehapana 

Acchapana is the oral intake of medicated or non medicated sneha in required quantities for a limited time period without mixing food articles other than prakshepadravyas.It can be samana or sodhana. In this, sneha alone should be given in the early morning; after the digestion of sneha, dravapradhana ahara should be given.

Materials required

Sneha- Q.S.

Measuring jar-1

Glass-1

Cloth-1

Lemon-1

Water boiled with Shunti-Q.S.

Cotton- Q.S.

Gauze-1

Metal tumbler-1

Purvakarma – 

  • Sambhar sangraha (Collection of necessary materials) 
  • Examination of patient 
  • Fixation of dose 
  • Preparation of patient 

Comprehensive evaluation is essential for Athura pareeksha, examining Agni (digestive fire); Matra pareeksha, assessing the strength of digestion; and Vyadhi-Bala pareeksha, gauging resistance to diseases. Adequate rookshana, a process of drying and detoxification, is carried out through methods such as thakrapana (application of medicated buttermilk) and udwarthana (dry powder massage), alongside the use of deepana-pachana medications. A moderate Hraseeyasi matra is typically administered for Agni assessment, while koshtapareeksha (intestinal examination) is conducted, and an allergic test is performed, generally involving a quantity of 20-60 ml.

On the preceding day, the patient should be provided with food (vilepi) that is neither excessively heavy nor excessively nourishing. It’s important for the patient to obtain restful sleep during the night. The following morning, an evaluation of their digestion is conducted, considering factors like lightness, purity of belching, and normal bowel movements. After adhering to their usual daily regimen, the patient is readied for snehapana, an Ayurvedic oleation therapy.

  • Investigations required prior to accha snehapana:-
    Blood:-Routine Examination RE,
  • Liver Function Test,
  • Sugar levels,
  • Renal Function Test,
  • Lipid profiles.
  • Urine: -RE.
  • Stool: – RE.

Pradhana karma

Mode of administration of Sneha 

Obnservation of jiryamana, Jirna Lakshana 

Observation of snigdha, asnigdha, atisnigdha lakshana

Sneha vyapada and their management 

वातानुलोम्यं दीप्तोऽग्निर्वर्चः स्निग्धमसंहतम्||३०||
स्नेहोद्वेगः क्लमः सम्यक्स्निग्धे

शिरोरुग्भ्रमनिष्ठीवमूर्च्छासादारतिक्लमैः|
जानीयाद् भेषजं जीर्यत्…………………||२७||

The dosage of the sneha, or therapeutic oil, should be determined based on various factors such as age, overall health, individual constitution (prakriti), current imbalances (vikriti), dosha (constitutional factors), and digestive strength (agnibala). Typically, for ghee (grita), the initial dosage should fall in the range of 50-75 ml, and for oil (taila), it should be between 30-60 ml on the first day. The subsequent day’s dose should be established after considering the time taken for digestion. For vasa and majja, a maximum of 50 ml can be administered.

The process commences within half an hour of sunrise, where the patient is seated comfortably on an empty stomach. The sneha is then administered, and afterward, the eye bandage is removed. Warm water is given as an anupana (accompanying drink), often incorporating Shunti jala as a traditional practice. Subsequently, the patient washes their face and mouth with hot water to eliminate the taste of the sneha. When thirst arises, warm water can be provided, and this sequence is followed on the subsequent days as well.

Duration

Snehapana can be extended until the desired signs of proper oleation, such as the correction of Vata imbalances, improved digestive vigor (agnideepti), the presence of unctuous and unformed stools, the alleviation of any discomfort related to the intake of the oil (snehodvega), and the overall softness and suppleness of body parts are observed. Typically, this period spans from 3 to 7 days. However, if these signs are not evident even after 7 days, the Snehapana should be discontinued. Following a brief period of 1 to 3 days for rookshana (drying and detoxification), Snehapana can be resumed. In cases where Snehapana is aimed at balancing Samana dosha (one of the functional aspects of digestion), it should be continued until the symptoms subside.

Post operative procedure:

The patient is advised to rest during the Snehapana period, with an important note not to nap during the daytime. In case of nausea, the patient can be offered the aroma of lemon to alleviate discomfort. Following the complete digestion of the Snehapana, when a healthy appetite is experienced, warm vilepi can be provided as nourishment.

Precautions:

Before initiating and throughout the procedure, the patient should adhere to a disciplined routine. This involves the consumption of warm and liquid diets that are low in fat, and it’s advisable to avoid a wide array of recipes. The timing and season for administration should ideally be neither excessively hot nor cold, and the sky should be clear rather than cloudy.

Anupana 

  • Ghee- hot water 
  • Taila- Yusha 
  • Vasa – Majja- Manda 
  • Tuvaraka taila- normal water 

Bahya Sneha refers to external oleation methods in Ayurveda. These techniques include:

  • Abhyanga: Full body oil massage.
  • Lepa: Application of herbal pastes or clay on specific areas.
  • Udwartana: Dry powder massage.
  • Padaghata: Foot massage.
  • Samvahana: Massaging with oil in a synchronized manner.
  • Sneha Avagaha: Oil bath or immersion.
  • Gandusha: Holding oil or liquid in the mouth.
  • Kavala: Swishing oil in the mouth.
  • Akshi Tarpana: Eye treatment.
  • Karnapurana: Ear oiling.
  • Mastishkya: Applying oil on the head.
  • Talapodichill: Foot oiling.
  • Murdhni taila: Scalp oil application.
  • Shirodhara: Oil poured on the forehead.
  • Kati basti: Waist oil treatment.
  • Griva basti: Neck oil treatment.
  • Janu basti: Knee oil treatment.
  • Hrid basti: Heart region oil treatment.

10 multiple-choice questions (MCQs) related to Snehana:

  1. What is the primary objective of external Snehana in Ayurveda?
  2. To balance the doshas
  3. To improve digestion
  4. To nourish and lubricate the skin and tissues
  5. To promote mental clarity
  6. What is the term used to describe the internal consumption of Sneha or oily substances in Ayurveda?
  7. Snehapana
  8. Abhyanga
  9. Nasya
  10. Gandusha
  11. Which of the following is NOT considered one of the properties of Snehana dravya (oily substances) in Ayurveda?
  12. Guru (Heavy)
  13. Snigdha (Unctuous)
  14. Ruksha (Dry)
  15. Mrudu (Soft)
  16. What qualities does Sneha aim to achieve within the body according to Ayurvedic principles?
  17. Dryness and roughness
  18. Moistness and softness
  19. Sweet and sour tastes
  20. Lightness and roughness
  21. Which factor determines the choice of specific Sneha substances and their application in Ayurveda?
  22. Age of the individual
  23. The season of the year
  24. An individual’s constitution (Prakriti) and imbalances (Vikriti)
  25. The availability of oils in the region
  26. What are the qualities of Sneha substances used for Bahya Sneha in Ayurveda?
  27. They are usually cooling and drying.
  28. They are mainly pungent and bitter in taste.
  29. They should be heavy, unctuous, and liquid.
  30. They are primarily light and sharp in quality.
  31. What is the recommended timing for the administration of Ghee (grita) in Snehapana in relation to a meal?
  32. Before the meal
  33. During the meal
  34. After the meal
  35. It can be administered at any time of the day
  36. How is the dosage of Sneha determined for Snehapana in Ayurveda?
  37. It is based solely on the patient’s age.
  38. It is consistent for all individuals.
  39. It depends on factors such as the patient’s constitution, digestion, and age.
  40. It is fixed and does not vary.
  41. What type of Sneha is recommended for the elderly and children in Ayurveda?
  42. Hrasva Matra
  43. Madhyama Matra
  44. Madhyama-Tara Matra
  45. Uttama Matra
  46. In Ayurveda, what does “Vicharana Sneha” involve?
  47. Application of oil to the body’s exterior
  48. Internal consumption of pure Sneha
  49. Combining Sneha with various food articles
  50. Both A and B

Answers:

  1. c. To nourish and lubricate the skin and tissues
  2. a. Snehapana
  3. c. Ruksha (Dry)
  4. b. Moistness and softness
  5. c. An individual’s constitution (Prakriti) and imbalances (Vikriti)
  6. c. They should be heavy, unctuous, and liquid.
  7. a. Before the meal
  8. c. It depends on factors such as the patient’s constitution, digestion, and age.
  9. a. Hrasva Matra
  10. d. Both A and B

References: 

1.Agnivesha, Charaka, Charaka Samhita with commentary of Chakrapani Datta, edited by Vaidya Yadavaji Trikamji Acharya, published by Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, Reprint 2010

2.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita with commentary of Sri Dalhanacharya edited by Aryan Ram Acharya “Kavyatirtha”, published by Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, Reprint 2009

3.Vagbhata, Ashtanga Hridya with the commentaries Sarvangasundara of Arundatta and Ayurveda Rasayana of Hemadri, edited by Pandit Hari Sadasiva Sastri Paradakara Bhisagacarya; Chaukhamba rientalia,Varanasi, Reprint -2011.

4.Dravyaguna Vijnana by Dr. J. L. N Shastri, Vol. 2, 3rd Edition, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, 2008

 

 

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