Physiology of Manas (Part -1)
Dr. Vandana Verma, Assistant Professor, Department of Kriya Sharir, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi
- What is meaning of word Manas/Satva/Mind.
- What is Mind.
- What are the synonyms of Manas.
- What is the origin of Manas.
- Where does it resides in body.
- What is its functional area in the body?
- What is Manovaha Srotas
- Characteristic of Manas
- Attributes of Manas
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgment, memory.
- Antahkaran – Atma, Buddhi, Manas
- Mind means – Brain, Intelligence, intellectual capabilities, power of thought, power of comprehension, perception , sense, will ( Monier Williams Sanskrit English dictionary)
- Mana is used as synonymous for Brain, heart, intellect.
Mans is also enumerated under the category of Adhyatmya dravya along with Atma, Artha of Mana, Buddhi (intellect) मनो मनोर्थो बुद्धिरात्मा चेत्यध्यात्मद्रव्यगुणसङ्ग्रहः (C.Su8/13)
यदिन्द्रियाणामभिग्राहकं च ‘मन’ इत्यभिधीयते; तत्त्रिविधमाख्यायते- शुद्धं, राजसं, तामसमिति| (C.Sha.3/13) Mana is the entity which makes the sensory organ to connect with their respective stimulus or stimulates motor organs to take action/regulates the action of Karmendriya. Mana is of three kinds on the basis of predominance of Triguna i.e. Satvika, Rajas and Tamas in an individual. All the individuasl posses these triguna in their Mana. But the person having dominance of Satva, Raja and Tama in Mana is designated as Satvika, Rajasika and Tamasika Mana.
Synonyms of Manas: Chitta, cheta, hridya, Manas, Satva
Origin of Manas: Is it Panchabhautika?
खादीनिबुद्धिरव्यक्तमहङ्कारस्तथाऽष्टमः|भूतप्रकृतिरुद्दिष्टा विकाराश्चैव षोडश|| बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि पञ्चैव पञ्च कर्मेन्द्रियाणि च| समनस्काश्च पञ्चार्था विकारा इति सञ्ज्ञिताः||( C.Sharir 1/63,64)
Mana as Karan dravya: It is derived from panchabhuta. Although, it is one among the nine Karan dravya i.e. Panchamahabhut, Atma(consciousness),Mana(mind), Kala(time factor), Disha(directions) , which are responsible for creation of whole universe, including living and non-living things.
खादीन्यात्मा मनः कालो दिशश्च द्रव्यसङ्ग्रहः|
सेन्द्रियं चेतनं द्रव्यं, निरिन्द्रियमचेतनम्|| (C.Su.1/48 )
Satva is essential factor for creation of life along with Panchamahabhut, Time factor, Direction and Consciousness. Things having indriya are called as Chetan Dravya and Things do not having Indriya are called as Achetan dravya. Here presence or absence of indriya is deciding factor for classification of dravya as chetan and achetan since indriya are the part of body which exhibit the signs of life.
Functional expression of Manas starts at fifth month of intrauterine life.
पञ्चमे मनः प्रतिबुद्धतरं भवति I (S.Sha 3/30)
Seat of Manas – Main site is Heart, Brain but the whole body is the functional area of Mana except hairs and terminal part of nails.
Hridaya is the seat of Prana, Indriya, shadanga(six body parts), Indriya artha(sabda,sparsha ,rupa,rasa,gandh), Atma and Mana, Chintya. Here Hridya should be understood as shirogata brain then we can understand the above mentioned things which are located in brain. Brain is the main vital organ in the body. The whole body is represented in brain as sensory and motor homunculus and regulated by brain so it is site for shadanga. Similarly all the centers of special sensations are present in different part of cerebral cortex of brain so it site for Indriya and their specific artha.
The prefrontal cortex is the site for thought process, analysis, ideation, intelligence so it is site for Chinyta and Limbic system and hypothalamus is seat for generation of emotion and memory and whole cerebral cortex of brain is the seat of consciousness (Atma).
आत्मा च सगुणश्चेतश्चिन्त्यं च हृदि संश्रितम्|| ( C.Su.30/4)
Chakrapani commentary – षडङ्गानिबाहुद्वयजङ्घाद्वयशिरोन्तराधिरूपाणि यस्य तत् षडङ्गमङ्गम्| अङ्गं च षडङ्गादतिरिक्तं समुदायरूपमवयविरूपं वा| अङ्गमिति वक्तव्ये षडङ्गविशेषणं षण्णामङ्गानामपि हृदयाश्रितत्वप्रतिपादनार्थं; इन्द्रियाणि चक्षुरादीनि पञ्च| अर्थपञ्चकं शब्दादि| सगुण इत्यनेन सुखादिग्रहणम्| चेतः मनः| चिन्त्यं मनोविषयः| एते च षडङ्गविज्ञानादयः प्रति प्रति पठिताः
प्राणाः प्राणभृतां यत्रIश्रिताः सर्वेन्द्रियाणि च|
यदुत्तमाङ्गमाङ्गानां शिरस्तदभिधीयते|| C.Su.17/12
According to Bhel the seat of Manas is between Talu(palate) and Shir (skull) i.e. brain. शिरस्ताल्वन्तर्गतं सर्वेन्द्रियपरं मनः (Bhel Samhita Chikitsa sthan 8/2)
वातपित्तश्लेष्मणां पुनः सर्वशरीरचराणां सर्वाणि स्रोतांस्ययनभूतानि, तद्वदतीन्द्रियाणांपुनःसत्त्वादीनांकेवलंचेतनावच्छरीरमयनभूतमधिष्ठानभूतं च| तदेतत् स्रोतसां प्रकृतिभूतत्वान्न विकारैरुपसृज्यते शरीरम्||७|| (C. Vi. 5/6)
दोषाः प्रकुपिता हृदयमुपसृत्य मनोवहानि स्रोतांस्यावृत्य जनयन्त्युन्मादम्||४|| (C.Ni.7/4)
Manovaha Srotas is the functional site of Manas. The Manovahs Srotas is present all over the body like Tridosha but Manovahs Srotas is limited only up to the body parts having Chetna (consciousness). When the Manovaha srotas gets vitiated that leads to derranged functional state of Mana and produces various kind of disorders of Manas like Unmada(insanity), Mad(madness), Murccha(fainting/unconciosness), etc .
Mana is seat of Pain
वेदनानामधिष्ठानं मनो देहश्च सेन्द्रियः|
धातूनां पूरणं वर्णं स्पर्शज्ञानमसंशयम् |
स्वाः सिराः सञ्चरद्रक्तं कुर्याच्चान्यान् गुणानपि ||१४|| (Su.Sharir 7/14)
The body, Mana and Indriya are the site of Pain. Few body parts like hairs and terminal part of nail is not the site of pain, since they do not have any kind of sensations however they are site of dosha. Anna mala i.e. feces and urine formed after proper digestion and metabolism are devoid of properties and are not the site of pain. If these mala are formed after incomplete digestion and metabolism, having the abnormal property of sabda, sparsha, roopa,rasa ,gandha may cause pain in their respective reservoirs i.e. Mutrashya(urinary bladder) like in case of Mutrakriccha (dysuria)and Pakwashya(large intestine) in case of grahni roga.
Although Indriya are also the body parts but here Indriya have been mentioned separately as site of pain since all special senses have high innervations and more number of receptors than other body parts so they are more sensitive toward any kind of pain.
Characteristics of Manas
Mana is a Dravya since it inherits properties and exhibit functions. As per Charaka Mana is derived from Panchamahabhuta. It is also called as Adhyaatma dravya because of its connection with Atma. Adhatmya dravya includes Mana, Manoartha(Subject of Mana), Buddhi(intellect) and Atma(conciousness). Mana has been also counted under the category of primordial causative factors i. e. Karan dravya.
यत्राश्रिताः कर्मगुणाः कारणं समवायि यत् तद्द्रव्यं I (C.Su. 1/51)
Ubhayatmaka: It is Ubhayatmaka means it works in connection with both sensory and Motor organs so it cannot be counted under category of Gyanendriya (sense organ) or K rmendriya (Motor organs).
उभयात्मकं मनः (S.Shar1/4)
Atindriya: Manas is Atindriya means it cannot be perceived by our five sensory organs. It could be understood only by its functions by anuman.
अतीन्द्रियं पुनर्मनः सत्त्वसञ्ज्ञकं, ‘चेतः’ इत्याहुरेके I (C.Su.8/4) व्यक्तमैन्द्रियकं चैव गृह्यते तद्यदिन्द्रियैः|
अतोऽन्यत् पुनरव्यक्तं लिङ्गग्राह्यमतीन्द्रियम्|| (C.Sha.1/62)
Mana is called Achetan, means it is devoid of consciousness, but it is active (Kriyavaan), since it exhibits all its functions in connection with Atma. Whereas, Atma is inactive (Akriyavan) and cause for consciousness (Cetana). Although Mana is performing all actions but Atma is called as doer (Karta) of all bodily functions and cause for perception and knowledge because Manas can perform its actions in the living body only in presence of Atma (conciousness).
अचेतनं क्रियावच्च मनश्चेतयिता परः|
युक्तस्य मनसा तस्य निर्दिश्यन्ते विभोः क्रियाः||
चेतनावान् यतश्चात्मा ततः कर्ता निरुच्यते|
अचेतनत्वाच्च मनः क्रियावदपि नोच्यते|| (C.Sha. 1/75,76)
लक्षणं मनसो ज्ञानस्याभावो भाव एव च|
सति ह्यात्मेन्द्रियार्थानां सन्निकर्षे न वर्तते||
वैवृत्त्यान्मनसो ज्ञानं सान्निध्यात्तच्च वर्तते| (C. Sha 1/18,19)
Attributes of Mana
अणुत्वमथ चैकत्वं द्वौ गुणौ मनसः स्मृतौ|| (C.Sha1/18)
Anutva and Ekatva are the two attributes of Mans. Anu means Sukshma (Subtle, minute) which cannot be seen. Due to its subtleness it moves quickly and conjugates with the sense organs so rapidly and it seems that all the sensory perceptions are happening simultaneously at same time and Manas is connected with all indriya at same time. However it makes connection only with single Indriya at a time. This shows its Ekatva property.
Properties of Mana:
वायुः पित्तं कफश्चोक्तः शारीरो दोषसङ्ग्रहः|
मानसः पुनरुद्दिष्टो रजश्च तम एव च|| (C.Su.1/57)
एवशब्देन सत्त्वाख्यगुणस्यादोषत्वमवधारयति, सत्त्वं ह्यविकारि|| (chakrapani )
Mana is having three properties namely Satva, Raja and Tama. Raja and Tama are also called as Manasika Dosha while Satva is called as Guna of Mana as it does not produce any kind of Vikara i.e. disorder in Manas rather it is responsible for knowledge and positive thoughts in Mana and its predominance never produce any disorder. Whereas excess /predominance of Raja and Tama produce different vikara (disorder) in Mana so they are called as Manasik dosha.
Multiple choice Questions:
Q.1. Tridanda consist of:
- Satva, Atma, Sharir
- Ahara, Nidra, Brahmcharya
- Vata, Pitta, Kapha
- Hetu, Ling, Aushada
Q.2. Achetna and Kriyawana is said for:
Q.3. Site of Manovaha Shrotas:
- All over body except hairs and terminal part of Nail
Q.4. Cheta is synonym of:
Q.5. As per Charaka, Manas is derived from
Q.6. Attributes of manas are:
- Anu & ektava
- Anu & aneka
- Vibhu& ekatva
- Vibhu& aneka
Q.7. Synonym of manas
- All of the above
Q.8. Functional expression of Manas starts at:
- fifth month of intrauterine life
- second month of intrauterine life
- first month of intrauterine life
- after birth
Q.9. Antahkaran in body comprised of
- Atma, Buddhi, Manas
- Atma, Buddhi, Gyanendriya
- Atma, Buddhi, Karmendriya
Q.10. What is the site of pain in Sharir
- Mana, Gyanendriya
- Atma, Gyanendriya
- Mana, Karmendriya
- Mana, Deha, Indriya
Answer sheet for MCQ