Module on “Physiology of Manas” (Part-2) by Dr. Vandana Verma

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Physiology of Manas (Part-2)

Dr. Vandana Verm, Assistant Professor, Department of Kriya Sharir, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi

             

Objectives:

  1. Subjects of Manas
  2. Functions of Manas
  3. Satva Vikara
  4. Determination of Type of Satva
  5. Types of Satva (Manas)
  6. Type of Manas/Satva on the basis Of Manobala(Mental strength) and clinical significance

Subjects of Mana: Following are the subjects of Mana

  1. चिन्त्यं- (Thinking/thought process)- It is the prime function of Manas, thinking about the knowledge/ stimulus perceived is called Chintya.  Generation of thought is of two kind i.e. Indryiya sapeksha and Indryiya Nirpeksha. When thought process arises about the knowledge perceived with the help of contact of stimulus with Gyanendriya(sensory organ) then is it called Indryiya sapeksha. However when the thought process arises in Mind about the imagined subjects without involvement of Indriya means there is no contact of stimulus in the form of Sabda, Sparsha, Rupa, Rasa, Gandh with the Indriya then it is called as Indryiya Nirpeksha.
  2. विचार्यम् (Consideration, Analysis)- It is the process of analysis that starts just after the perception of any stimulus/object.
  3. ऊह्यं (Inferring and making hypothesis)- To think about the future consequences related to object perceived is called Uhya. It is futuristic analysis of perceived object on the basis of various possibilities.
  4. ध्येयं ( Concentration, Attention)- The state of continuous focus or concentration on the object perceived.
  5. सङ्कल्प्यं- (Determination)- After the complete analysis with the above four stages about the perceived object final decision is taken and this step is also called as determination. In stage arises after the complete analysis about guna(positive aspect) and dosha(negative aspect) of perceived stimulus/ object and there is generation of final knowledge about the perceived object.

All of the above subjects of Mans i.e. Chintya, Vicharya, Uhya, Dheyaya, Sankalp may be Indriya Sapeksha or Indriya Nirpeksha.

चिन्त्यं विचार्यमूह्यं च ध्येयं सङ्कल्प्यमेव च| यत्किञ्चिन्मनसो ज्ञेयं तत् सर्वं ह्यर्थसञ्ज्ञकम्|| (C.Sha. 1/20)

चिन्त्यं कर्तव्यतया अकर्तव्यतया वा यन्मनसा चिन्त्यते| मनसस्तु चिन्त्यमर्थः|
तत्र मनसो मनोबुद्धेश्च त एव समानातिहीनमिथ्यायोगाः प्रकृतिविकृतिहेतवो भवन्ति||  (C.Su 8/16)

विचार्यम् उपपत्त्यनुपपत्तिभ्यां यद्विमृश्यते| ऊह्यं च यत् सम्भावनया ऊह्यते ‘एवमेतद्भविष्यति इति| ध्येयं भावनाज्ञानविषयम्| सङ्कल्प्यं गुणवत्तया दोषवत्तया वाऽवधारणाविषयम्| यत् किञ्चिदित्यनेन सुखाद्यनुक्तविषयावरोधः| Chakrapani मनसो ज्ञेयमिति इन्द्रियनिरपेक्षमनोग्राह्यम्| एते च मनोऽर्थाः शब्दादिरूपा एव; तेन षष्ठार्थकल्पनया न चतुर्विंशतिसङ्ख्यातिरेकः| सुखादयस्तु शब्दादिव्यतिरिक्ता मनोऽर्था बुद्धिभेदग्रहणेनैव ग्राह्याः| (Chakrapani commentary ) on (C.Sha. 1/20)

Functions of Manas

इन्द्रियाभिग्रहः कर्म मनसः स्वस्य निग्रहः|
ऊहो विचारश्च, ततः परं बुद्धिः प्रवर्तते|| C.Sha 1/21

इन्द्रियाधिष्ठानं मनसः कर्म, मनो ह्यनिष्टविषयप्रसृतं मनसैव नियम्यते ,आलोचन ज्ञानं निर्विकल्पकम् ,विचारो हेयोपादेयतया विकल्पनम् II Chakrapani

  1. Control of Indriya functions, it prevents the contact of Indriya with the thing which are harmful to the body.
  2. Control of its own functions ,Restrain of mind itself
  3. Analysis of Knowledge perceived by Indriya
  4. Logical thinking to make decision

The primary knowledge (buddhi) which arises just after the contact of Indriya with object is called as Nirvikalpaka where as the final knowledge about the perceived object that arises after analysis and logical interpretation about the utility and nonutility of object is called Vikalpanam.

Satva vikara( emotions):

Charak has described about various emotions and behavioral expressions of Satva(Mana) which arise from Satvaj bhava in fetus and remain all through the life.

भक्तिः – Desire  ,  शीलं – behavior,   शौचं – purity, cleanliness,    द्वेषः- hatred, स्मृति-  memory ,  र्मोह- attachment to worldly things,  त्याग  – sacrifice,  मात्सर्यं – feeling of jealousy in happiness of others,  शौर्यं – valour, bravery,  भयं – fear,  क्रोध- anger,  तन्द्रा – drowsiness,  उत्साह – enthusiasm,  तैक्ष्ण्य – harse or intense bin behavior,  मार्दवं – soft in behavior,  गाम्भीर्यम- patient and stable in behavior, अनवस्थितत्व- unstable in behavior.

यानि खल्वस्य गर्भस्य सत्त्वजानि, यान्यस्य सत्त्वतः सम्भवतः सम्भवन्ति, तान्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथा- भक्तिः शीलं शौचं द्वेषः स्मृतिर्मोहस्त्यागो मात्सर्यं शौर्यं भयं क्रोधस्तन्द्रोत्साहस्तैक्ष्ण्यं मार्दवं गाम्भीर्यमनवस्थितत्वमित्येवमादयश्चान्ये, ते सत्त्वविकारा यानुत्तरकालं सत्त्वभेदमधिकृत्योपदेक्ष्यामः|
नानाविधानि खलु सत्त्वानि, तानि सर्वाण्येकपुरुषे भवन्ति, न च भवन्त्येककालम्, एकं तु प्रायोवृत्त्याऽऽह || (C.Sha.3/13)

Satvika, Rajasika and Tamasika Traits

Satvika person is kind and away from cruelty, believes in equality, divides things without greed, forgiveness, truthfulness, righteousness, faith in god and salvation, knowledgeable, intelligent, good memory and mentally stable.

सात्त्विकास्तु– आनृशंस्यं संविभागरुचिता तितिक्षा सत्यं धर्म आस्तिक्यं ज्ञानं बुद्धिर्मेधा स्मृतिर्धृतिरनभिषङ्गश्च;

Rajasika Traits: tendency to become sorrow, hostile in behavior, impatient , mentally unstable, proudy, speak lie, cruelty, over excitement in happiness, intense desire to get something, anger etc.

राजसास्तु– दुःखबहुलताऽटनशीलताऽधृतिरहङ्कार आनृतिकत्वमकारुण्यं दम्भो मानो हर्षः कामः क्रोधश्च;

Sad mood, no faith in god, salvation, tendency to do unrighteous actions and behavior, ignorance, inactive, lack of enthusiasm, excessive sleep.

तामसास्तु– विषादित्वं नास्तिक्यमधर्मशीलता बुद्धेर्निरोधोऽज्ञानं दुर्मेधस्त्वमकर्मशीलता निद्रालुत्वं चेति ||१८||(S.Sha.1/18)

Determination of Type of Satva:

All the satvaja bhava (emotions) are present in Mana of all human being since birth but their expression at a time is not same in all individuals. The expression of all these bhava depends on the proportion of triguna i. e. Satva,Raja and Tama in Mana of an individual. The type of Satva of a person is determined on the basis of frequently observed traits of Mana in their behavoiral expressions. If  frequently observed traits in a person is  of Satvika type then the type of Satva in that person is designated as Satvika and similar in case Rajasika, Tamasika also. Satva, Raja and Tama are present in all indiviaduals and exhibit their special properties or traits through Mana. Thus a person performs behavioral activities or shows emotions as per the proportion of expression  of Triguns in Mana.

यद्गुणं चाभीक्ष्णं पुरुषमनुवर्तते सत्त्वं, तत्सत्त्वमेवोपदिशन्ति बाहुल्यानुशयात् इति(C.Su.8/6) येन गुणेन सत्त्वादिना युक्तं यद्गुणम्, अभीक्ष्णं पुनः पुनः, सत्त्वं मनः, अनुवर्ततेऽनुबध्नाति, तत्सत्त्वं सात्त्विकं राजसं तामसं वा उपदिशन्ति, बाहुल्यानुशयात् भूरिसम्बन्धादित्यर्थः| एतदुक्तं भवति- सत्यपि गुणान्तरान्वये सत्त्वबाहुल्यात्  सत्त्वकार्याणि सत्यशौचादीनि यस्य भवन्ति स सात्त्विक इति व्यपदिश्यते; एवमपरमपि  व्याख्येयम्|| (Chakrapani commentary on C.Su.8/6)

Determinants of Type of Satva

Charak mentioned that as the roopa (body parts) develops from paternal roop i.e. genes inherited from parents in the same manner the development of Mana depends on mental traits and behavioral code of conduct of parents that are inherited in the genes.

The contemporary science has also mentioned that behavior has genetic basis along with role of environment in its development. The verse by Charak refers to epigenetic effect of code of conduct and behavior acquired by parents or by mother during fetal development which alters the expression of genes related to behavior also.

रूपाद्धि रूपप्रभवः प्रसिद्धः कर्मात्मकानां मनसो मनस्तः|
भवन्ति ये त्वाकृतिबुद्धिभेदारजस्तमस्तत्र च कर्म हेतुः|| (C.Sha2/36)

Type of Manas/Satva on the basis Of Manobala(Mental strength)

Three types of Satva-

  1. Pravar- dominance of Satva guna
  2. Madhyam- dominance of Raja guna
  3. Avar- dominance of Tama guna

Pravar Satva: Person having Pravar Satva has good tolerance towards pain or any kind of stress. Charak has mentioned that Satva bala(mental strength) is independent of physical built of a person.  A person with large body frame, hefty, strong muscular body may have poor mental strength; however a person of small body size, thin body may have good mental strength.

Madhyam Satva: Madhyam satva(medium mental strength) person have medium tolerance towards pain or any kind of stress. Such persons are able to bear their pain after counseling or by seeing another person in the similar situation.

Avar Satva: Person having Avar satva (low mental strength) have very poor tolerance to pain or stress and are unable to bear stress even after counseling. Such person gets fainted on seeing blood, exposure to threatful situation and may die also. They are suffering from feeling of excess fear, grief, attachment, and greed and have tendency of excessive thinking and prone for anxiety and mental disorders.

सत्त्वं मनोबलं गुणविशेषो रजस्तमसोर्विपक्षः; सत्त्वे सति पीडादिसहिष्णुत्वलक्षणं मनोबलं भवतिI, सत्त्वे उत्तमं मनोबलं, रजसि मध्यमं मनोबलं, तमसि मनोदौर्बल्यमेवेति(Dalhana commentary on S.Su.35/37)

त्रिविधं बलमिति- सहजं, कालजं, युक्तिकृतं च| सहजं यच्छरीरसत्त्वयोः प्राकृतं|| (C.Su.11/36)

सत्त्वतश्चेति सत्त्वमुच्यते मनः| तच्छरीरस्य तन्त्रकमात्मसंयोगात्| तत् त्रिविधं बलभेदेन- प्रवरं, मध्यम्, अवरं चेति; अतश्च प्रवरमध्यावरसत्त्वाः पुरुषा भवन्ति| (C.Vi.8/119)    तन्त्रकमिति प्रेरक धारकं | तत्र प्रवरसत्त्वाः सत्त्वसारास्ते सारेषूपदिष्टाः, स्वल्पशरीरा ह्यपि ते निजागन्तुनिमित्तासु महतीष्वपि पीडास्वव्यथा दृश्यन्ते सत्त्वगुणवैशेष्यात्; मध्यसत्त्वास्त्वपरानात्मन्युपनिधाय संस्तम्भयन्त्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानं परैर्वाऽपि संस्तभ्यन्ते; हीनसत्त्वास्तु नात्मना नापि परैः सत्त्वबलं प्रति शक्यन्ते उपस्तम्भयितुं, महाशरीरा ह्यपि ते स्वल्पानामपि वेदनानामसहा दृश्यन्ते, सन्निहितभयशोकलोभमोहमाना रौद्रभैरवद्विष्टबीभत्सविकृतसङ्कथास्वपि च पशुपुरुषमांसशोणितानि चावेक्ष्य विषादवैवर्ण्यमूर्च्छोन्मादभ्रमप्रपतनानामन्यतममाप्नुवन्त्यथवा मरणमिति||(Chakrapani commentary on C.Vi.8/119)

All the textual references i.e. Samhita chapter number and verse number have been mentioned in the text.

Abbreviations: C.- Charak, S.- Shusruta, A.- Astanga, Sang. – Samgrah, Hri. – Hridyam, Su. Sutrasthan, Ci. Chikitsa sthan, Sha. Sharir shtan,  Siddhi. – Siddhishtan, In. – Indryia shtan, Vi. – Viman sthana

Assessment:               

Multiple choice questions:

Q.1. Which Pitta dosha is responsible for manoratha sadhana i.e functions desired by mind is:

  1. Sadhaka pitta
  2. Bhrajaka pitta
  3. Alochaka pitta
  4. None of the above

Q.2. Functions of Manas:

  1. Control over Indriya
  2. Swanighraha
  3. None
  4. All of the above

Q.3. Persons coping from stress only after counseling or seeing someone else also facing the same stress belong to which type of satva?

  1. Pravara satva
  2. Madhyam satva
  3. Avara stava
  4. None

Q.4. Vichar (analysis) is function of which of the following:

  1. Atma
  2. Mana
  3. Pada
  4. Vata

Q.5. Types of Satva, as per Charaka:

  1. 2
  2. 4
  3. 3
  4. 6

 

  1. Types of Manobal as per Sushruta :
    1. 2
    2. 3
    3. 4
    4. None

Q.7. What are the subjects of manas?

  1. Chintya
  2. Vichara
  3. Sankalpa
  4. All of the above

Q.8. Generation of thought is

  1. Only Indryiya sapeksha
  2. Only Indryiya Nirpeksha
  3. All of the above
  4. None

Q.9. Type of Satva is determined by

  1. Satvaj bhav
  2. Proportion of Satva, Raja, Tama in Mana
  3. Code of conduct of parents
  4. All of the above

Q.10. Which type of Satva bala persons are suffering from excessive fear, anxiety and easily get fainted on seeing blood –

  1. Avar satva
  2. Pravar satva
  3. Madyam satva
  4. None

Answer Keys for MCQ

Question no Answers
1 1
2 3
3 2
4 2
5 3
6 2
7 4
8 3
9 4
10 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

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